Note to Readers:

Please Note: The editor of Impact of Sex & War blog is a member of the Ecology of Peace culture.

The problems of poverty, unemployment, war, crime, violence, food shortages, food price increases, inflation, police brutality, political instability, loss of civil rights, vanishing species, garbage and pollution, urban sprawl, traffic jams, toxic waste, racism, sexism, Nazism, Islamism, feminism, Zionism etc; are the ecological overshoot consequences of humans living in accordance to a Masonic War is Peace international law social contract that provides humans the ‘right to breed and consume’ with total disregard for ecological carrying capacity limits.

Ecology of Peace factual reality: 1. Earth is not flat; 2. Resources are finite; 3. When humans breed or consume above ecological carrying capacity limits, it results in resource conflict; 4. If individuals, families, tribes, races, religions, and/or nations want to reduce class, racial and/or religious local, national and international resource war conflict; they should cooperate to implement an Ecology of Peace international law social contract that restricts all the worlds citizens to breed and consume below ecological carrying capacity limits; to sustainably protect and conserve natural resources.

EoP v WiP NWO negotiations are documented at MILED Clerk Notice.

Monday, August 8, 2016

Nuclear and Thermonuclear Weapons History Mushroom Cloud Information and Image Gallery



Nuclear and Thermonuclear Weapons History Mushroom Cloud Image Gallery
Large: Der Spiegel: Planning for Nuclear War; Dimitri Khalezov:
WTC Nuclear Demolition.
“Only when arbitration is able to unravel the tangled skein of crime and hypocrisy among individuals can it be extended to communities and nations. As nations are only man in the aggregate, they are the aggregate of his crimes and deception and depravity, and so long as these constitute the basis of individual impulse, so long will they control the acts of nations.” -- Military Gospel According to Homer Lea

A Nuclear Broken Arrow - An unexpected and unplanned event, involving nuclear weapons, such as: accidents in launching, firing, detonating, theft and loss of the weapon.

The Swan primary of Operation Plumbbob: Diablo, on July 15, 1957, at the Nevada Test Site, Area 2 b, was fired in a full-sized structural model of the thermonuclear system. Boken Arrow: Diablo misfired. The discussion and investigation lasted over a day, trying to understand what could have gone wrong, and more importantly who was going to disarm and inspect a faulty nuke. Finally the crew of 3 engineers who were the last on the tower was assigned to this dangerous task. Eventually it ended up good, and the device was successfully disarmed. Though disarming a nuclear bomb that didn't go off after firing and potentially could've detonated at any second was more than a tough job. -- Test: Diablo; Date: July 15 1957; Operation: Plumbbob.

"If each human family were dependent only on its own resources; if the children of improvident parents starved to death; if thus, over breeding brought its own "punishment" to the germ line -- then there would be no public interest in controlling the breeding of families. But our society is deeply committed to the welfare state, and hence is confronted with another aspect of the tragedy of the commons. In a welfare state, how shall we deal with the family, the religion, the race, or the class that adopts over breeding as a policy to secure its own aggrandizement? To couple the concept of freedom to breed with the belief that everyone born has an equal right to the commons is to lock the world into a tragic course of action. The most important aspect of necessity that we must now recognize, is the necessity of abandoning the commons in breeding. No technical solution can rescue us from the misery of overpopulation. Freedom to breed will bring ruin to all. ~ RRR Zhivago Hunter :: “Nuclear Freedom is the Recognition of Mutual Coercion, Mutually Agreed Upon Procreation Values Necessity” :: Buffalo Bill DMW ~

"It is important to understand the distinction between information and intelligence. Information is an assimilation of data that has been gathered, but not fully correlated, analyzed, or interpreted. Intelligence, on the other hand, is the transformation of information into knowledge and insight." -- Admiral Jeremy Boorda, Joint Military Intelligence College

Role of the "Massive Casualty 'Wake Up' Event".. Pre-Emptive Nuclear Strikes Military Gospel Doctrine: It’s going to get much worse. It is going to continue to get worse as you continue to believe what cannot be true. As long as you pull the comforter of delusion over your head the nightmares are going to get worse. They breed in that environment. They like it there. When it is time to wake up and you do not wake up, then the means applied to wake you up are going to intensify and intensify until you do wake up. Your real enemies are the people who are pointing your attention in the direction of an imaginary enemy. Your primary, real enemy is your ignorance and obstinacy. Your secondary enemy is the one manipulating both for their profit and entertainment. You need to realize that what is victimizing you is not just doing it to keep you in fear and to bleed you dry. These agencies and entities enjoy the spectacle of what they are putting you through. When you suffer and place the blame on something that never existed or is long dead, they laugh. You amuse the hell out of them. You had better wake up.


Military Gospel According to Homer Lea: “Only when arbitration is able to unravel the tangled skein of crime and hypocrisy among individuals can it be extended to communities and nations. As nations are only man in the aggregate, they are the aggregate of his crimes and deception and depravity, and so long as these constitute the basis of individual impulse, so long will they control the acts of nations.”
Military Gospel According to Homer Lea: “Only when arbitration is able to unravel the
tangled skein of crime and hypocrisy among individuals can it be extended to communities
and nations. As nations are only man in the aggregate, they are the aggregate of his crimes
and deception and depravity, and so long as these constitute the basis of individual impulse,
so long will they control the acts of nations.”


WORLD WAR II


LITTLE BOY: Little Boy; Date:August 6, 1945; Site:Hiroshima,Japan; Detonation:Air Delivered; Yield:15.00kt; Type:Fission,U235
Little Boy; 6 Aug 1945; Hiroshima, Japan
LITTLE BOY

Test: Little Boy;
Date: August 6, 1945;
Operation: Unknown;
Site: Hiroshima, Japan;
Detonation: Air Delivered;
Yield: 15.00kt;
Type: Fission,U235

Significant and historic as the first combat use of an atomic weapon ever, over Hiroshima, Japan at exactly 08:16:02 a.m., at an altitude of 1900 ft, and at a position of 34°23'44''N, 132°27'13''E, approx 150m from the Hiroshima Prefectural Industrial Promotion Hall.

Upon detonation, the bomb released the equivalent of 15,000 tons of TNT (15kT), and created a mushroom cloud that rose to 45,000 feet. In an instant 80,000 to 140,000 people were killed and 100,000 more were seriously injured, mortally burned, or fatally irradiated. Of the 90,000 buildings in Hiroshima 60,000 were totally destroyed. Little Boy was based upon simpler, but less efficient gun-type design than the Gadget evice used in Trinity test, which was an implosion bomb. Originally the gun-type scheme has been proposed for the Plutonium bomb, but later when the more efficient, but risky implosion design has been chosen for the Plutonium bomb, serious attention returned to uranium one. The uranium gun program, lead by A. Francis Birch faced a difficult task. They had to build the bomb, without testing, yet be absolutely sure that it would work. There simply was not enough Uranium to both test and drop in anger, and sufficient amount of enriched Uranium was only available by mid 1945. The actual device has been ready for combat use by May 1945.

Little boy used 64.1kg Uranium. 50kg 89% enriched and the rest was 50% enriched. U235 has been separated into two parts, the bullet which weighted approx. 26kg and the target weighting 38kg. The barrel has been borrowed from the anti-aircraft gun. The bore was modified to accommodated the new Uranium bullet. Conventional artillery smokeless powder would drive the bullet at 300 m/sec velocity once ignited.

USS Indianapolis (CA-35) delivered Little boy components to Tinian base on July 26, apart from the target assembly, which was delivered two days later. Originally the plan was to deliver the bomb on Aug. 1, but due to the weather conditions the operation plan has been altered, and on Aug. 6. at 00:00 Col. Tibbets received final debriefing. Hiroshima was the primary target, with Kokura and Nagasaki being alternative targets.

Little Boy - delivered by B29 Bomber Enola Gay, crew: Colonel Paul Tibbets - Commander; Captain Robert Lewis - Co-Pilot; Captain Theodore Van Kirk - Navigator; Major Thomas Ferebee - Bombardier; Lieutenant Jacob Beser - Electronic Countermeasures; Sergeant Joseph Stiborik - Radar Operator; Private Richard Nelson - Radar Operator; Staff Sergeant Wyatt Duzenbury - Flight Engineer; Staff Sergeant Robert Caron - Tail Gunner; Captain Deke Parson - Weaponeer; 2nd Lieutenant Morris Jeppson - Ordinance Expert;

Few minutes after the explosion, seeing what has happened, Robert Lewis wrote in his journal:My God, what have we done?


FATMAN: Nagasakia: Name: Fat Man; Date: August 9, 1945; Site: Nagasaki, Japan; Detonation: Air Delivered; Yield:21.00kt; Type: Fission, Pu239
Fat Man; 9 Aug 1945; Nagasaki, Japan
FAT MAN

Name: Fat Man;
Date: August 9, 1945;
Site: Nagasaki, Japan;
Operation: Unknown;
Detonation: Air Delivered;
Yield: 21.00kt;
Type: Fission, Pu239;

US detonated second nuclear bomb during the WW II, at this time over Nagasaki, Japan. The bomb named Fat-Man was detonated at 11:02 am. at an altitude of 1500 ft. Yield 21Kt. Of the 286,000 people living in Nagasaki at the time of the blast, 74,000 were killed in an instant, and another 75,000 sustained severe injuries.

Fat Man was identical to the Gadget device used in the Trinity test, except it was encased in steel. Ostensibly, Fat-Man used Pu239 instead U235 and more efficient, implosion type design. It measured 60 inches in diameter, was 12 feet long, and weighed 10,300 lb. All the parts for the Fat Man assembly finally arrived at Tinian by Aug. 2, 1945.

The delivery date has been shifted several times due to changing weather conditions. Finally the date was set, Aug. 9. 1945. Primary target for the bombing has been an arsenal in the city of Kokura. B-29 arrived at the target zone around 10:44 am. However clouds, flaks and fighters prevented it from precise bombing and it had to rout towards the secondary target. One more problem was the malfunctioning fuel pump, which rendered a 600 gallon auxilary tank useless. That in turn limited the choice of the secondary target, so B-29 set the course towards Nagasaki. When the bomber arrived at Nagasaki the remaining fuel would only allow it one pass over the city for bombing, even with emergency landing at Okinawa.

The only gap over the area permitted a drop, which missed the original aimpoint by several miles. The detonation occurred near the city perimeter, close to Mitsubishi arms plant. Despite the fact that Fat Man fell closer to an unpopulated area the casualties were immense, 42,000 died in an instant and 40,000 more were injured. 39% of the city buildings were destroyed.

Delivered by B29 Bomber Bock's Car, crew: Major Charles Sweeney - Commander; First Lieutenant Charles Albury - Co-Pilot; Captain James Van Pelt, Jr. - Navigator; Captain Kermit Beahan - Bombardier; Lieutenant Jacob Beser - Electronic Countermeasures; Staff Sergeant Ed Buckly - Radar Operator; Sergeant Abe Spitzer - Radar Operator; Master Sergeant John Kuharek - Flight Engineer; Sergeant Raymond Gallagher Asst. Flight Engineer; Staff Sergeant Albert Dehart - Tail Gunner; Commander Frederick Ashworth - Weaponeer; 2nd Lieutenant Fred Olivi - Third Pilot


MANHATTAN PROJECT:


TRINITY-BW: Name:Trinity; Date:July 16, 1945; Operation:Trinity; Site:Alamagordo, New Mexico; Detonation:Tower; Yield:19.00kt; Type:Implosion, Fission, Pu239
Trinity; 16 Jul 1945, NM
TRINITY
Test Name: Trinity;
Date: July 16, 1945;
Operation: Trinity;
Site: Alamagordo, New Mexico;
Detonation: Tower;
Yield: 19.00kt;
Type: Implosion, Fission, Pu239;

The end of $20 billion worth Manhattan project and beginning of the atomic era. The device used in the Trinity test had code name - Gadget. It was an experimental design of the implosion type bomb, used later in Fat Man. Later on, the same design(obtained via espionage) has been used by USSR in their first nuclear bomb Joe I.

The core of the gadget was enriched Pu sphere. 9cm in diameter and weighted approximately 6.2kg(13.5lb). The whole device itself was a 1.5m diameter sphere. When everything was ready it took 5 days to finally assemble the Gadget and make it operational. Some of the final tasks were performed at ground Zero.


TRINITY-REDBLACK: Name:Trinity; Date:July 16, 1945; Operation:Trinity; Site:Alamagordo, New Mexico; Detonation:Tower; Yield:19.00kt; Type:Implosion, Fission, Pu239
Trinity, 16 Jul 1945, NM
The first atomic explosion in mankind history was conducted at the Alamagordo Bombing Range in New Mexico. The name of the place, trail called the Jornada del Muerto(Jorney of Death) was apparently somewhat appropriate. The whole test operation was code-named Trinity.

Gadget was detonated on July 16, 1945, 5:29:45 a.m. (Mountain War Time). The explosion yielded 19-22kt, according to various sources. Though later estimates refer to the numbers close to 22kt. THe blast instantly rised the temperature to 10 000 000 degrees. The light was so intense that it was sufficient to cause temporary blindness to an observer 10 miles away. The immense temperature of the blast fuzed te desert sand into glass, which after 50 years still contains the traces of radioactivity.

The explosion resulting crater was 6.5ft(2m) deep and had 260ft(80m) radius. Originally the yield was estimated anywhere between 5-10kt. Since the practical yield was several times more a lot of test equipment and recording devices have been simply destroyed. After the explosion when Gen. Groves was informed about the destroyed equipment, noted: Good at least we know it was that powerful.



OPERATION CROSSROADS:


BAKER-PALM: Test:Baker; Date:July 24 1946; Operation:Crossroads; Site:Bikini Atoll lagoon, Marshall Islands; Detonation:Underwater, depth - 90ft(27.5m); Yield:23kt; Type:Fission
Baker, 24 Jul 1946, Marshall Islands
BAKER
Test: Baker;
Date: July 24 1946;
Operation: Crossroads;
Site: Bikini Atoll lagoon, Marshall Islands;
Detonation: Underwater, depth - 90ft(27.5m);
Yield:23kt;
Type:Fission

Second test in the Crossroads operation and the 5th nuclear explosion in the mankind's history. Baker was the continuation of the study of the nuclear weapon effects on the naval vessels and personnel. At this time the Mk 3A fission bomb ("Model 1561", basically the Fat Man) bomb has been detonated underwater. The bomb has been encased in a watertight shell and placed beneath the landing ship LSM-60. LSM-60 itself has been placed approximately in the center of the target fleet which consisted of 71 vessels. Closest to the device was the aircraft Carrier USS Saratoga. To study the effects of the heat, blast and radiation numerous lab. animals, plants and even biological warfare agents were brought in and placed on the target ships.

For the reference, the first test in this series, Able was an Airburst at the altitude of 520ft (160 m). Even though the devices used in the two consecutive explosions were identical the results were significantly different. Baker dished out a tremendous punishment, even compared to Able.


BAKER-BIKINI: Test:Baker; Date:July 24 1946; Operation:Crossroads; Site:Bikini Atoll lagoon, Marshall Islands; Detonation:Underwater, depth - 90ft(27.5m); Yield:23kt; Type:Fission
Baker, 24 Jul 1946, Marshall Islands
Eight ships were sunk or capsized: USS Saratoga, USS Arkansas, the submarines USS Apogon and USS Pilotfish, the Nagato, LSM-60, the concrete dry dock ARDC-13, and the barge YO-160. Eight more vessels were severely damaged.

The explosion lifted several million tons of water in the air. In its apogee the water column was 2000ft(600m) high with walls 300ft(100m) thick. Obviously the explosion generated huge waves in the ocean. Aircraft carrier USS Saratoga's stern was rising 43ft(13.5m)! above the surface, on the crest of the first wave.

The entire lagoon has been contaminated with radioactive particles. Matter of fact, for the first 24 hours after Baker detonation the radiation levels were lethal, and remained very dangerous for the next week. This effect has not been anticipated, and eventually President Truman called off the third deep underwater test codenamed Charlie.


OPERATION SANDSTONE

X-RAY: Test:X-Ray; Date:April 14 1948; Operation:Sandstone; Site:Enwetak Atoll, Island Engebi (Janet); Detonation:200ft. Tower Yield:37kt; Type:Fission
X-Ray, 14 Apr 1948

X-RAY
Test: X-Ray;
Date: April 14 1948;
Operation: Sandstone;
Site: Enwetak Atoll, Island Engebi ("Janet");
Detonation: 200ft.
Tower Yield: 37kt;
Type: Fission




RUSSIA


FIRST LIGHTNING: Name:First Lightning(Joe 1); Date:August 29, 1949; Site:Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan; Detonation:Tower; Yield:22kt; Type:Implosion, Fission, Pu239
First Lightning / Joe 1; 29 Aug 1949
FIRST LIGHTNING

Name: First Lightning/Joe1 aka RDS-1 (Russian: РДС-1) aka Izdeliye 501 (device 501)
Date: August 29, 1949;
Site: Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan;
Detonation: Tower;
Yield: 22kt;
Type: Implosion, Fission, Pu239

Some of the ground work for the future Soviet nuclear program has been performed as early as in 1939-41. It was in 1943 when it has actually begun under the leadership of physicist Igor Kurchatov. Obviously soviet intelligence wouldn't miss all the nuclear activities in the US Los-Alamos, and the weak security there was a big help to USSR nuclear developments. Immediately after WW II and US nuclear bombardments of Japan, Soviet Nuclear Program has been made the top priority by J.l Stalin himself. A man appointed to head the entire project was no less than Lavrenti Beria himself. The head of MGB (former NKVD, later transformed to KGB). Everyone involved in the project understood very well where they may end up in case of failure, and very unlikely that Beria would survive himself, should the project fail.

Probably the most important help provided by Beria's spies to the program, were the detailed design schemes of the US Fat Man bomb, which they in turn obtained from Klaus Fuchs, who played very important role in US nuclear weapons development. David Greenglass also provided important information to the Soviet intelligence.

Because of all those details, pressure and fear(which was very real) of the failure RDS-1 was basically an exact copy of the US design. The production system was very hazardous and inefficient, It took 2 years and enormous efforts to transform it to something more suitable for the serial production and produce second bomb.


OPERATION RANGER



FOX: Test:Fox; Date:February 6 1951; Site:Frenchman Flat (NTS), Nevada; Detonation:Airdrop, altitude - 1435ft(445m); Yield:22kt; Type:Fission
Fox, 6 Feb 1951, NV
FOX

Test: Fox; Date: February 6 1951;
Site: Frenchman Flat (NTS), Nevada;
Detonation: Airdrop, altitude - 1435ft (445m);
Yield: 22kt;
Type:Fission

Fox was a concept proof test. Test device code named Freddie used composite core in D type core. Predicted yield was 34 kt. As you can see the actual yield fell quite short of the prediction. At the time of this test the cores used in Freddie were already being deployed in US armed forces.




OPERATION BUSTER JANGLE

CHARLIE: Test:Charlie; Date:October 30 1951; Operation:Buster-Jangle; Site:Nevada Test Site (NTS), Area 7; Detonation:Airdrop from B-50, altitude - 1132ft; Yield:14kt; Type:Fission
Charlie, 30 Oct 1951, Nevada
CHARLIE

Test: Charlie;
Date: October 30 1951;
Operation: Buster-Jangle;
Site: Nevada Test Site (NTS), Area 7;
Detonation: Airdrop from B-50, altitude - 1132ft;
Yield: 14kt;
Type: Fission

During the Charlie shot the test device named "PC" was fired. Predicted yield was in the 12-15kt range. Apparently that was the new weapons research test. To be more precise it was an effort to improve existing nuclear weapons performance, as well as reduce the costs of the nuclear armament. PC basically was the standard MK-4 bomb, except the core was Uranium/Plutonium assembly.


EASY: Test:Easy; Date:November 05 1951; Operation:Buster-Jangle; Site:Nevada Test Site (NTS), Area 7; Detonation:Airdrop from B-45, altitude - 1314ft; Yield:31kt; Type:Fission
Easy, 05 Nov 1951, Nevada
EASY

Test: Easy;
Date: November 05 1951;
Operation: Buster-Jangle;
Site: Nevada Test Site (NTS), Area 7;
Detonation: Airdrop from B-45, altitude - 1314ft;
Yield: 31kt;
Type: Fission

Easy shot was a test of the Mk-7 nuclear bomb prototype. The test device code named TX-7E weighted only 1800 lb which was remarkably low for its time. TX-7E measured 30 inches in diameter, and this in turn was yet another dramatic improvement, in terms of size reduction. Overall TX weighted over 5 times less than the Fat-Man design and was twice as small (Fat-Man weighted 10 000 lb and was 60 inches in diameter). The device used composite uranium-plutonium core and its high explosive (75% Octol) lens assembly weighted 800 lb. The predicted yield was 22-35 kt.

DOG-DESERT: Test:Dog; Date:November 01 1951; Operation:Buster-Jangle; Site:Nevada Test Site (NTS), Area 7; Detonation:Airdrop from B-50, altitude - 1417ft; Yield:21kt; Type:Fission
Dog, 01 Nov 1951, Nevada

DOG

Test: Dog;
Date: November 01 1951;
Operation: Buster-Jangle;
Site: Nevada Test Site (NTS), Area 7;
Detonation: Airdrop from B-50, altitude - 1417ft;
Yield: 21kt;
Type: Fission

The test device used in the Dog shot has been codenamed "NF". Basically ti was a standard Mk-4 bomb, with a composite uranium-plutonium core. The expected yield was in the 18-25kt range. The actual yield was within the predicted range, 21kt.

DESERT-DOG: Test:Dog; Date:November 01 1951; Operation:Buster-Jangle; Site:Nevada Test Site (NTS), Area 7; Detonation:Airdrop from B-50, altitude - 1417ft; Yield:21kt; Type:Fission
Dog, 01 Nov 1951, Nevada

Dog was a proof test of Mk 6 strategic bomb. This was the highest yield test up to that time (superseded by George a month later), and evaluated the stockpiled MK 6 weapon with a "How Double Prime" composite uranium-plutonium core.

The explosion lifted 250,000 tons of soil to an altitude of approximately 35,000 feet. The Mk 6 was a improved large "Fat Man-style" weapon, with a 60 inch diameter, a length of 128 inches, and a weight of 8500 lb (later reduced to 7600 lb) a reduction from the earlier 10900 lb Mk 4. The Mk 6 had an improved 60 point implosion system (the Mk 4 had a 32 point system) that provided greater compression and higher efficiency. The Mk 6 was the first nuclear weapon stockpiled in large numbers by the U.S. (over 1000 eventually produced). Stockpiling of the MK 6 on an emergency basis was underway at the time of the test.

During the Dog shot, US conducted its first nuclear field exercise on the land. The operation has been codenamed "Desert Dog". The goal of the operation was the simulation of the defensive deployment and consequtive maneuvers. Weeks before the Dog shot the assembled troops (including 188th Airborne, 127th Engineer Battalion, and the 546th Field Artillery Battalion) dug field tranches and other emplacements southwest of the actual shot location. Then, first, troops observed the shot from a point six miles from ground zero from the defensive emplacements to view the weapon effecte. After that maneuvers were conducted in the area. Because the Dog shot was an airburst there was no local fallout. However that didn't exclude some amount of neutron-induced radioactivity.




OPERATION GREENHOUSE

EASY: Test:Easy; Date:April 20 1951; Operation:Greenhouse; Site:Island Enjebi (Janet), Enewetak Atoll; Detonation:Tower Shot, altitude - 300ft; Yield:47kt; Type:Fission
Easy, 20 Apr 1951, Enjebi
EASY

Test: Easy;
Date: April 20 1951;
Operation: Greenhouse;
Site: Island Enjebi ("Janet"), Enewetak Atoll;
Detonation: Tower Shot, altitude - 300ft;
Yield: 47kt;
Type: Fission

The goal of the Easy shot during the Greenhouse operation was the proof testing of the TX-5D bomb. Basically it was a major advance in weight reduction for implosion bombs. TX-5d weighted 2700 lb compared to Fat-Man's 10 000 lb and it's diameter was significantly reduced as well, 40 inch diameter in TX and 60 inch diameter for Fat-Man. TX used a lens implosion that utilized 92 points the core used in its design was a composite (plutonium/oralloy). Interestingly, later on this design was used as the primary in the first thermonuclear bomb test, Ivy Mike.

One more goal of the Easy shot was to test the effects of the nuclear weapons on various military structures. For several weeks military was building various structures on Enjebi and Mijakadrek Islands. Trinity and beyond has a footage of this shot and it sure looks more than impressive.



GEORGE-WHITE: Test:George; Date:8 May 1951; Operation:Greenhouse; Site:Island Eberiru (Ruby), Enwetak atoll; Detonation:Tower; Yield:225kt; Type:Fission/Fusion
George, 8 May 1951, Eberiru
GEORGE

Test: George;
Date: 8-9 May 1951;
Operation: Greenhouse;
Site: Island Eberiru ("Ruby"), Enwetak atoll;
Detonation: Tower;
Yield: 225kt;
Type: Fission/Fusion

George shot of the operation Greenhouse was remarkable in many aspects. For one it was the first successful fusion reaction in the field. Also, George was the largest nuclear detonation to the date, and held that record up until Mike shot of the operation Ivy. Nevertheless, George was not a weapon in essence. It was an experimental device to test several design concepts.


GEORGE-RED: Test:George; Date:8 May June 1951; Operation:Greenhouse; Site:Island Eberiru (Ruby), Enwetak atoll; Detonation:Tower; Yield:225kt; Type:Fission/Fusion
George 9 May 1951, Eberiru

Device used during this test was named simply Cylinder. In fact it rather was a disk, 8ft diameter, and 2ft thick. Cylinder was an implosion type device. The addition was Deuterium capsule, which provided the fuel for the fusion. The device has been based on George Gamow's design, while the thermonuclear part has been designed by Edward Teller himself.

The resulting data of George test proved to be highly useful. It had significant impact on the future weapons design, including boosted devics, and more importantly on radiation implosion, which was one of the key details of the Teller-Ulam design for the thermonuclear devices.

The yield was 225kt, and it left a large, shallow crater on the island, 1140 feet across and 10 feet deep. This type of crater is typical for tower detonations.


UNITED KINGDOM

HURRICANE: Test:Hurricane; Date:October 03 1952; Site:Trimouille Island, in the Monte Bello Islands, Australia; Detonation:Ship; Yield:25kt; Type:Fission
Hurricane, 3 Oct 1952, Trimouille
HURRICANE

Test: Hurricane;
Date: October 03 1952;
Site: Trimouille Island, in the Monte Bello Islands, Australia;
Detonation: Ship;
Yield: 25kt;
Type: Fission

Hurricane was the first nuclear detonation, and resembled the US design Fatman, i.e. it was an implosion type bomb, using Plutonium as the fissionable material, but obviously incorporating certain improvements. To meet the production and test deadline the UK used external help from Canada to acquire the required amount of Plutonium.

The test objective (besides the obvious one) was also to study the effects of the detonation of a nuclear device on a ship. The concern that such a device could be smuggled on board was apparently a great concern to the British at a time. Therefore, the test device was located 8.7ft (2.7m) below the water line, in the hull of the River-class frigate Plym.

The Hurricane explosion left a crater about 20ft deep and 1000ft across. The mushroom didn't grow all that big due to the extremely hot and dry weather, rising to only 15 000ft. Hurricane yielded 25kt.



OPERATION IVY


MIKE-RED: Test:Mike; Date:October 31, 1952; Operation:Ivy; Site:Elugelab Island, Enwetak atoll; Detonation:Surface; Yield:10.400 Mgt; Type:Fission/Fusion
Mike, 31 Oct 1952, Elugelab
MIKE

Test: Mike;
Date: October 31, 1952;
Operation: Ivy;
Site: Elugelab Island, Enwetak atoll;
Detonation: Surface;
Yield: 10.400 Mgt;
Type: Fission/Fusion

The device called Sausage, detonated in the Mike test was the first true thermonuclear bomb ever tested. However, the Sausage was not a deliverable weapon. It was an enormous, complex device, 80 inches wide and 244 inches long. The entire assembly weighted 82 metric tons. Sausage was built using Teller-Ulam principles of staged radiation implosion. Interestingly Teller himself didn't participate in development. Los Alamos Panda Committee, directed by J. Carson Mark did the job.


MIKEBLUE: Test:Mike; Date:October 31, 1952; Operation:Ivy; Site:Elugelab Island, Enwetak atoll; Detonation:Surface; Yield:10.400 Mgt; Type:Fission/Fusion
Mike, 31 Oct 1952, Elugelab

TX-5 fission bomb was used as a fuse(primary stage). Super cooled, liquid hydrogen was used as a thermonuclear fuel. The Cab, building which was housing the device was located on the zero island. A plywood tube was assembled from the Cab to the furthest island, where the detection station was, some 2 miles away. The tube was filled with Helium, to allow radiation rays travel faster before it was consumed by the fireball.

The explosion yielded 10.4 Mgt. Mike's fireball measured 3 miles. The cloud formed by Mike shot was immense. Stabilized, it reached 135 000 ft high, and stretched 60 miles in diameter, which eventually spread over 1000 miles.



MIKE-MCLOUD: Test:Mike; Date:October 31, 1952; Operation:Ivy; Site:Elugelab Island, Enwetak atoll; Detonation:Surface; Yield:10.400 Mgt; Type:Fission/Fusion
Mike, 31 Oct 1952, Elugelab

Mike destroyed the entire Elugelab island. The crater formed as a result of the explosion measured 6240ft(1.5Km) across and 164ft(53m) deep. Following the test, high levels of radiation covered most of the Enwetak atoll.

This was 4th largest test ever conducted by US, (the largest at that time). For comparison, this is more then all allied bombs dropped during WW II together.




KING: Test:King; Date:October 31, 1952; Operation:Ivy; Site:Runit (Yvonne) Island, Enewetak Atoll; Detonation:Airburst from the B36 Bomber; Yield:500kt; Type:Fission
King, 31 Oct 1952, Runit
KING

Test: King;
Date: October 31, 1952;
Operation: Ivy;
Site: Runit ("Yvonne") Island, Enewetak Atoll;
Detonation: Airburst from the B36 Bomber;
Yield: 500kt;
Type: Fission

King was the second and the last detonation during the operation Ivy. It also was one of the largest pure fission bombs ever detonated or produced. The test device itself was a prototype for the later Mk 18 bomb. The name King indicated that the yield was still in Kilotons, not megatons as Ivy-Mike. The prototype and the actual weapon used Super Oralloy as a fissile material. The rest of the test device mainly was based standard weapon components. Base was the Mk-6D bomb, the 92 point implosion system came from the Mk-13 bomb, etc. Total mass of the complete assembly was 8600 lb.


MIKE-SCLOUD: Test:Mike; Date:October 31, 1952; Operation:Ivy; Site:Elugelab Island, Enwetak atoll; Detonation:Surface; Yield:10.400 Mgt; Type:Fission/Fusion
Mike, 31 Oct 1952, Elegelab

Safety devices and measurements were one of the most important aspects of this test. Considering that the test device itself contained more than 4 critical masses of fissile material it was really on the edge of the safety. For that matter, the core was filled with Boron and Aluminum chains. Those would absorb neutrons and prevent the pit collapse in case of the accidental detonation of the implosion lens high explosives, or severe impact. The safety chains were removed before detonations, in this case right before the airdrop. The bombing was commenced from the B36 bomber, at the altitude of 1480ft, wihch was 20 ft lower than planned.







OPERATION UPSHOT/KNOTHOLE



ANNIE: Test:Annie; Date:March 17 1953; Operation:Upshot/Knothole; Site:Nevada Test Site (NTS), Area 3; Detonation:Tower, altitude - 300ft; Yield:16kt; Type:Fission
Annie, 17 Mar 1953, Nevada
ANNIE

Test: Annie;
Date: March 17 1953;
Operation: Upshot/Knothole;
Site: Nevada Test Site (NTS), Area 3;
Detonation: Tower, altitude - 300ft;
Yield: 16kt;
Type: Fission





NANCY: Test:Nancy; Date:March 24 1953; Operation:Upshot/Knothole; Site:Nevada Test Site (NTS), Area 4; Detonation:Tower, altitude - 300ft; Yield:24kt; Type:Fission
Nancy, 24 Mar 1953, Nevada
NANCY


Test: Nancy;
Date: March 24 1953;
Operation: Upshot/Knothole;
Site: Nevada Test Site (NTS), Area 4;
Detonation: Tower, altitude - 300ft;
Yield: 24kt;
Type: Fission




BADGER: Test:Badger; Date:April 18 1953; Operation:Upshot/Knothole; Site:Nevada Test Site (NTS), Area 2; Detonation:Tower, altitude - 300ft; Yield:23kt; Type:Fission
Badger, 18 Apr 1953, Nevada
BADGER

Test: Badger;
Date: April 18 1953;
Operation: Upshot/Knothole;
Site: Nevada Test Site (NTS), Area 2;
Detonation: Tower, altitude - 300ft;
Yield: 23kt;
Type: Fission;




SIMON: Test:Simon; Date:April 25 1953; Operation:Upshot/Knothole; Site:Nevada Test Site (NTS), Area 3; Detonation:Tower, altitude - 300ft; Yield:43kt; Type:Fission
Simon, 25 Apr 1953, Nevada
SIMON

Test: Simon;
Date: April 25 1953;
Operation: Upshot/Knothole;
Site: Nevada Test Site (NTS), Area 3;
Detonation: Tower, altitude - 300ft;
Yield: 43kt;
Type: Fission





HARRY: Test:Harry; Date:May 19 1953; Operation:Upshot/Knothole; Site:Nevada Test Site (NTS), Area 3; Detonation:Tower, altitude - 300ft; Yield:32kt; Type:Fission
Harry, 19 May 1953, Nevada
HARRY

Test: Harry;
Date: May 19 1953;
Operation: Upshot/Knothole;
Site: Nevada Test Site (NTS), Area 3;
Detonation: Tower, altitude - 300ft;
Yield: 32kt;
Type:Fission





GRABLE-BLUE: Test:Grable; Date:May 25 1953; Operation:Upshot/Knothole; Site:Nevada Test Site (NTS), Area 5; Detonation:Artillery shell airburst, altitude - 500; Yield:15kt; Type:Fission
Grable, 25 May 1953, Nevada
GRABLE

Test: Grable;
Date: May 25 1953;
Operation: Upshot/Knothole;
Site: Nevada Test Site (NTS), Area 5;
Detonation: Artillery shell airburst, altitude - 500;
Yield: 15kt;
Type: Fission

Grable detonation was a unique test in many aspects. For one is was the first test of a nuclear artillery shell. Also, the test results provided very useful data for nuclear weapons use and tactics. The shell used in Grable test was Mk-9 11.02"(280mm) AFAP(Artillery Fired Atomic Projectile). 54.4" inches long, it weighted 803lb. Mk-9 employed Gun-Type design, and matter of fact, it was the first weapon after Little Boy to use Gun-Type scheme. Fissile material - Oralloy. The cannon that fired Mk-9 was an enormous artillery piece, weighting 85 tons. It's muzzle velocity of 2060ft/sec allowed up to 20 miles shooting range.


GRABLE-BRADLEY: Test:Grable; Date:May 25 1953; Operation:Upshot/Knothole; Site:Nevada Test Site (NTS), Area 5; Detonation:Artillery shell airburst, altitude - 500; Yield:15kt; Type:Fission
Grable, 25 May 1953, Nevada

The Mk-9 shell traveled 11,000 yards and was detonated 500 ft above the ground. The time fuze was employed to ensure precise bombing time. The actual yield of 15kt was very close to the predicted one - 14kt.


CLIMAX-RED: Test:Climax; Date:June 4 1953; Operation:Upshot/Knothole; Site:Nevada Test Site (NTS), Area 7; Detonation:Airburst from B-36 Bomber, altitude - 1334; Yield:61kt; Type:Fission
Climax, 4 Jun 1953, Nevada

What was interesting with Grable was the result of the detonation. Preceding Grable, there was Encore shot, that yielded 27kt. Encore was detonated in the same test area at Nevada etst site, #5. Now, comparing the results of those two explosions, Grable inflicted a lot more damage than the Encore shot, even though the Encore shot was almost twice as powerful as that of produced by Grable. The difference was in the detonation altitude. Encore was detonated at 2423ft, i.e. relatively high above the ground.

Basically it was an airdrop, delivered by B-50 bomber. Grable has been detonated at much lower altitude, 500ft. That produced a very abnormal waveform, referred as precursor. Basically precusor, or the precusor loads, are very strong dynamic winds, and when dragging through the target they produce very extensive damage. For instance the Jeep at a given level from the detonation point that successfully survived Ecnore blast, practically undamaged, was completely torn to pieces and thrown to the distance as much as 500ft during the Grable test.



CLIMAX-WRIGHT: Test:Climax; Date:June 4 1953; Operation:Upshot/Knothole; Site:Nevada Test Site (NTS), Area 7; Detonation:Airburst from B-36 Bomber, altitude - 1334; Yield:61kt; Type:Fission
Climax, 4 Jun 1953, Nevada
CLIMAX

Test: Climax;
Date: June 4 1953;
Operation: Upshot/Knothole;
Site: Nevada Test Site (NTS), Area 7;
Detonation: Airburst from B-36 Bomber, altitude - 1334;
Yield: 61kt;
Type: Fission






RUSSIA



JOE 4/SLOIKA: Name:Joe 4, the Sloika; Date:August 12, 1953; Site:Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan; Detonation:Tower; Yield:400kt; Type:Fission/Fusion, U235/Li6/Tritium
Joe Sloika, 12 Aug 1953
JOE 4 / SLOIKA

Name: Joe 4, the Sloika;
Date: August 12, 1953;
Site: Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan;
Detonation: Tower;
Yield: 400kt;
Type: Fission/Fusion, U235/Li6/Tritium

Although it was Soviet's fifth nuclear detonation, for some reason the west it was dubbed as Joe 4. I doubt US intelligence would miss an atomic explosion in USSR, so I guess it was something else. Anyway, the device codenamed RDS-6 was built upon Sakharov's Sloika design. It was not a true H-Bomb, as most of its yield came from fission. Nevertheless, it demonstrated fusion reaction in a deliverable weapon sized device. Obviously that bolstered up US determination to create a deliverable thermonuclear weapon and took nuclear arms race one step further.

RDS-6 employed both, fision and fusion rections. Fissile material - U235, which was layered with fusion fuel - Li6, and that in turn was mixed with Tritium. The practical yield limit for this type of device was below 1mgt. It was not widely deployed, as more successfull Teller-Ulam design appeared soon.




OPERATION TOTEM (UK)



T1: Test:T1; Date:October 14 1953; Operation:Totem; Site:Emu Field, South Australia; Detonation:Tower Shot, altitude - 100ft(31m); Yield:10kt; Type:Fission
T1, 14 Oct 1953, Emu Field AU
T1

Test: T1;
Date: October 14 1953;
Operation: Totem;
Site: Emu Field, South Australia;
Detonation: Tower Shot, altitude - 100ft(31m);
Yield: 10kt;
Type: Fission






T2: Test:T2; Date:October 14 1953; Operation:Totem; Site:Emu Field, South Australia; Detonation:Tower Shot, altitude - 100ft(31m); Yield:8kt; Type:Fission
T2, 14 Oct 1953, Emu Field AU
T2

Test: T2;
Date: October 14 1953;
Operation: Totem;
Site: Emu Field, South Australia;
Detonation: Tower Shot, altitude - 100ft(31m);
Yield: 8kt;
Type: Fission

This was the third nuclear test of UK. Max predicted yield 10Kt, min. predicted yield .02 kt, most likely eswtimate was 2-3 kt. T2 actually yielded 8 kt.






OPERATION TEAPOT


WASP: Test: Wasp; Date: February 8, 1955; Operation: Teapot; Site: Nevada Test Site (NTS), Frenchman Flats; Detonation: Airdrop, altitude - 1500ft; Yield: 1kt; Type: Fission
Wasp, 8 Feb 1955, Nevada
WASP

Test: Wasp;
Date: February 8, 1955;
Operation: Teapot;
Site: Nevada Test Site (NTS), Frenchman Flats;
Detonation: Airdrop, altitude - 1500ft;
Yield: 1kt;
Type: Fission

Wasp was the first test in operation Teapot series and it was 50th US nuclear test. Fission type device was expected to have approx. 1Kt yield. Test itself was an airdrop. Actual yield was as predicted, 1Kt.





MOTH: Test:Moth; Date:February 22 1955; Operation:Teapot; Site:Nevada Test Site (NTS), Area 3; Detonation:Tower, altitude - 300ft; Yield:2kt; Type:Fission
Moth, 22 Feb 1955, Nevada
MOTH

Test: Moth;
Date: February 22 1955;
Operation: Teapot;
Site: Nevada Test Site (NTS), Area 3;
Detonation: Tower, altitude - 300ft;
Yield: 2kt;
Type: Fission





TESLA: Test:Tesla; Date:March 12 1955; Operation:Teapot; Site:Nevada Test Site (NTS), Area 9; Detonation:Tower, altitude - 300ft; Yield:7kt; Type:Fission
Tesla, 12 Mar 1955, Nevada
TESLA

Test: Tesla;
Date: March 12 1955;
Operation: Teapot;
Site: Nevada Test Site (NTS), Area 9;
Detonation: Tower, altitude - 300ft;
Yield: 7kt;
Type: Fission





HORNET: Test:Hornet; Date:March 12 1955; Operation:Teapot; Site:Nevada Test Site (NTS), Area 3a; Detonation:Tower, altitude - 300ft; Yield:4kt; Type:Fission
Hornet, 12 Mar 1955, Nevada
HORNET

Test: Hornet;
Date: March 12 1955;
Operation: Teapot;
Site: Nevada Test Site (NTS), Area 3a;
Detonation: Tower, altitude - 300ft;
Yield: 4kt;
Type: Fission





APPLE 1: Test:Apple I; Date:March 29 1955; Operation:Teapot; Site:Nevada Test Site (NTS), Area 4; Detonation:Tower, altitude - 500ft; Yield:14kt; Type:Fission
Apple I, 29 Mar 1955, Nevada
APPLE I

Test: Apple I;
Date: March 29 1955;
Operation: Teapot;
Site: Nevada Test Site (NTS), Area 4;
Detonation: Tower, altitude - 500ft;
Yield: 14kt;
Type: Fission





HA: Test:HA; Date:April 6, 1955; Operation:Teapot; Site:Nevada Test Site (NTS), Frenchman Flats; Detonation:Airdrop, altitude - 40,000ft; Yield:3kt; Type:Fission
Ha, 6 Apr 1955, Nevada
HA

Test: HA;
Date: April 6, 1955;
Operation: Teapot;
Site: Nevada Test Site (NTS), Frenchman Flats;
Detonation: Airdrop, altitude - 40,000ft;
Yield: 3kt;
Type: Fission

High altitude test conducted during Teapot. Airdrop. This detonation doesn't meet official 100,000ft altitude to be classified as High Altitude officially. However, historical research and data publications still include it in high altitude tests. Which probably is still appropriate.




MET-BLUE: Test:Met; Date:April 15 1955; Operation:Teapot; Site:Nevada Test Site (NTS), Frenchman Flats; Detonation:Tower, altitude - 400ft; Yield:22kt; Type:Fission
Met, 15 Apr 1955, Nevada
MET

Test: Met;
Date: April 15 1955;
Operation: Teapot;
Site: Nevada Test Site (NTS), Frenchman Flats;
Detonation: Tower, altitude - 400ft;
Yield: 22kt;
Type: Fission




APPLEII-VIEW: Test:Apple II; Date:March 29 1955; Operation:Teapot; Site:Nevada Test Site (NTS), Area 1; Detonation:Tower, altitude - 500ft; Yield:29kt; Type:Fission
Apple II, 29 Mar 1955, Nevada
APPLE II

Test: Apple II;
Date: March 29 1955;
Operation: Teapot;
Site: Nevada Test Site (NTS), Area 1;
Detonation: Tower, altitude - 500ft;
Yield: 29kt;
Type: Fission





RUSSIA




Name:No. 24/RDS-37; Date:November 22, 1955; Site:Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan; Detonation:Air drop; Yield:1.6Mgt; Type:Fission/Fusion, U235/Li6/Tritium
24/RDS-37, 22 Nov 1955, USSR
RU-24/RDS37

Name: No. 24/RDS-37;
Date: November 22, 1955;
Site: Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan;
Detonation: Air drop;
Yield: 1.6Mgt;
Type: Fission/Fusion, U235/Li6/Tritium

24th nuclear detonation of USSR. This was the first air delivered thermonuclear weapon test. The device codenamed RDS-37 was built upon Sakharov's Third idea, basically this is same as Teller-Ulam design. As I understand Soviets came to the idea independently, and Teller confirms this in his interview.

After successfull testing all Soviet weapons were built using this design, and the Sloika was dropped. The yield has been reduced approximately by 50%, because part of Li6 Deuteride fusion fuel has been replaced with ordinary Lithium hydride.

As usual, the pilot commanding the air crew, F. P. Golovashko has been made a hero of USSR.




OPERATION REDWING


SEMINOLE-VIEW: Test:Seminole; Date:June 6 1956; Operation:Redwing; Site:Eniwetak Atoll, Bogon Island; Detonation:Surface, elevation - 7ft(2.1); Yield:13.7kt; Type:Fission
Seminole, 6 Jun 1956, Bogon
SEMINOLE

Test: Seminole;
Date: June 6 1956;
Operation: Redwing;
Site: Eniwetak Atoll, Bogon Island;
Detonation: Surface, elevation - 7ft(2.1);
Yield: 13.7kt;
Type: Fission

Seminole was a combined weapon effect test. The test device was exploded in a large water tank to increase the shockwave to the ground. To some extent the test was simulating an underground nuclear detonation. The test device was positioned in a circular chamber, which in turn was placed inside the water tank. The chamber still was accessible by a corridor through the tank. Interesting point, the chamber was not exactly in the center of the tank, to be precise - 10 feet off center. That led to a significant asymmetry in the resulting crater produced. The crater was 660 feet wide and 32 feet deep.

The device was designed so that by the time when the fireball reached the tank walls the its growth would've been transformed from thermal radiation into hydrodynamic. Nevertheless the fireball was quite brigh as you can see on the pictures. In general Seminole was one of the most interesting (from visual standpoint) tests ever conducted.

And couple words about the nuclear device itself: The device used in the Seminole tyest was a bosted TX-28 primary/implosion system. It was 55 inches long, and 20 inches in diameter. Predicted predicted yield of 10 kt, actual yield 13.7. Total weight of the device was 1832 lb, the primary itself weighed 143.5 lb.





BLACKFOOT: Test:Blackfoot; Date:June 11 1956; Operation:Redwing; Site:Runit (Yvonne) Island, Enewetak Atoll; Detonation:Tower, 200ft; Yield:8kt; Type:Fission
Blackfoot, 11 Jun 1956, Runit
BLACKFOOT

Test: Blackfoot;
Date: June 11 1956;
Operation: Redwing;
Site: Runit (Yvonne) Island, Enewetak Atoll;
Detonation: Tower, 200ft;
Yield: 8kt;
Type: Fission





DAKOTA: Test:Dakota; Date:June 25 1956; Operation:Redwing; Site:Bikini Atoll lagoon, Yurochi (Dog) Island; Detonation:Barge, 5000 feet off Yurochi Island; Yield:1.1Mgt; Type:Fission/Fusion
Dakota, 25 Jun 1956, Yurochi
DAKOTA

Test: Dakota;
Date: June 25 1956;
Operation: Redwing;
Site: Bikini Atoll lagoon, Yurochi (Dog) Island;
Detonation: Barge, 5000 feet off Yurochi Island;
Yield: 1.1Mgt;
Type: Fission/Fusion




APACHE-RED: Test:Apache; Date:July 8 1956; Operation:Redwing; Site:Enewetak Atoll; Detonation:Barge, in the Ivy Mike crater; Yield:1.85Mgt; Type:Fission/Fusion
Apache, 8 Jul 1956, Enewetak
APACHE

Test: Apache;
Date: July 8 1956;
Operation: Redwing;
Site: Enewetak Atoll;
Detonation: Barge, in the Ivy Mike crater;
Yield: 1.85Mgt;
Type: Fission/Fusion





MOHAWK: Test:Mohawk; Date:July 2 1956; Operation:Redwing; Site:Eberiru (Ruby) Island, Enewetak Atoll; Detonation:Tower, 300ft; Yield:360kt; Type:Fission/Fusion
Mohawk, 2 Jul 1956, Eberiru
MOHAWK

Test: Mohawk;
Date: July 2 1956;
Operation: Redwing;
Site: Eberiru (Ruby) Island, Enewetak Atoll;
Detonation: Tower, 300ft;
Yield: 360kt;
Type: Fission/Fusion





PROJECT MOSAIC (UK)



G2: Test:G2; Date:June 19 1956; Operation:Mosaic; Site:Alpha Island in the Monte Bello Islands, Australia; Detonation:Aluminum Tower Shot, altitude - 100ft(31m); Yield:98kt; Type:Fission
G2; 19 Jun 1956, Alpha Island AU
G2

Test: G2;
Date: June 19 1956;
Operation: Mosaic;
Site: Alpha Island in the Monte Bello Islands, Australia;
Detonation: Aluminum Tower Shot, altitude - 100ft(31m);
Yield: 98kt;
Type: Fission






OPERATION BUFFALO


R4BUFFALO: Test:Round 4; Date:October 22 1956; Operation:Buffalo; Site:Breakaway Site, Maralinga Test Range; Detonation:Aluminum Tower Shot, altitude - 110ft(34m); Yield: 16kt; Type:Fission
R4, 22 Oct 1956, Maralinga
R4: Round 4

Date: October 22 1956;
Operation: Buffalo;
Site: Breakaway Site, Maralinga Test Range;
Detonation: Aluminum Tower Shot, altitude - 110ft(34m);
Yield: less than 16kt;
Type: Fission






OPERATION GRAPPLE




GRANITE: Test:Short Granite; Date:May 15 1957; Operation:Grapple; Site:Malden Island, Pacific; Detonation:Airdrop, altitude - 7750ft(2400m); Yield:200-300kt; Type:Fission/Fusion
Granite, 15 May 1957
GRANITE

Test: Short Granite;
Date: May 15 1957;
Operation: Grapple;
Site: Malden Island, Pacific;
Detonation: Airdrop, altitude - 7750ft(2400m);
Yield: 200-300kt;
Type: Fission/Fusion





HALLIARD: Test:Halliard 1; Date:September 11 1958; Operation:Grapple; Site:Christmas Island, Pacific; Detonation:Airdrop, altitude - 8550ft(2650m); Yield:1.8mgt; Type:Fission/Fusion
Halliard, 11 Sep 1958
HALLIARD

Test: Halliard 1;
Date: September 11 1958;
Operation: Grapple;
Site: Christmas Island, Pacific;
Detonation: Airdrop, altitude - 8550ft(2650m);
Yield: 1.8mgt;
Type: Fission/Fusion





ROUND C: Test:Round C; Date:November 8 1957; Operation:Grapple; Site:Christmas Island, Pacific; Detonation:Airdrop, altitude - 7260ft(2250m); Yield:1.8mgt; Type:Fission/Fusion
Round C, 8 Nov 1957
ROUND C

Test: Round C;
Date: November 8 1957;
Operation: Grapple;
Site: Christmas Island, Pacific;
Detonation: Airdrop, altitude - 7260ft(2250m);
Yield: 1.8mgt;
Type: Fission/Fusion







OPERATION PLUMBBOB




BOLTZMAN-YELLOW: Test:Boltzman; Date:May 28 1957; Operation:Plumbbob; Site:Nevada Test Site (NTS), Area 7; Detonation:Tower Shot, altitude - 500ft; Yield:12kt; Type:Fission
Boltzman, 28 May 1957, Nevada
BOLTZMAN

Test: Boltzman;
Date: May 28 1957;
Operation: Plumbbob;
Site: Nevada Test Site (NTS), Area 7;
Detonation: Tower Shot, altitude - 500ft;
Yield: 12kt;
Type: Fission





FRANKLIN: Test:Franklin; Date:June 2 1957; Operation:Plumbbob; Site:Nevada Test Site (NTS), Area 3; Detonation:Tower, altitude - 300ft; Yield:140 tons; Type:Fission
Franklin, 2 Jun 1957, Nevada
FRANKLIN

Test: Franklin;
Date: June 2 1957;
Operation: Plumbbob;
Site: Nevada Test Site (NTS), Area 3;
Detonation: Tower, altitude - 300ft;
Yield: 140 tons;
Type: Fission





PRISCILLA-YELLOW: Test:Priscilla; Date:June 24 1957; Operation:Plumbbob; Site:Nevada Test Site (NTS), Area 5; Detonation:Baloon, altitude - 700ft; Yield:37kt; Type:Fission
Priscilla, 24 Jun 1957, Nevada
PRISCILLA

Test: Priscilla;
Date: June 24 1957;
Operation: Plumbbob;
Site: Nevada Test Site (NTS), Area 5;
Detonation: Baloon, altitude - 700ft;
Yield: 37kt;
Type: Fission




HOOD-RED: Test:Hood; Date:July 5 1957; Operation:Plumbbob; Site:Nevada Test Site (NTS), Area 9; Detonation:Baloon, altitude - 1500ft; Yield:74kt; Type:Fission
Hood, 5 Jul 1957, Nevada

HOOD

Test: Hood;
Date: July 5 1957;
Operation: Plumbbob;
Site: Nevada Test Site (NTS), Area 9;
Detonation: Baloon, altitude - 1500ft;
Yield: 74kt;
Type: Fission



DIABLO: Test:Diablo; Date:July 15 1957; Operation:Plumbbob; Site:Nevada Test Site (NTS), Area 2b; Detonation:Tower, altitude - 500ft; Yield:17kt; Type:Fission/Fusion
Diablo, 15 Jul 1957, Nevada
DIABLO

Test: Diablo;
Date: July 15 1957;
Operation: Plumbbob;
Site: Nevada Test Site (NTS), Area 2b;
Detonation: Tower, altitude - 500ft;
Yield: 17kt;
Type: Fission/Fusion

The Diablo shot was a developmental test of another two stage thermonuclear design. The Swan primary was fired in a full-sized structural model of the thermonuclear system. The test device measured 16.2 inches in diameter and 68.4 inches in length. Total weight was 1352 lb. This test device was fairly similar to the one used during the Shasta shot.
The predicted yield was 11-15kt including the yield produced by the secondary stage. The full scale device test was scheduled to be conducted during the operation Hardtack I.
Another interesting detail about the Diablo shot was that it became one of the Broken Arrows. Originally the test has been planned 17 days earlier, but it misfired. The discussion and investigation lasted over a day, truing to understand what could have gone wrong, and more importantly who was going to disarm and inspect a faulty nuke. Finally the crew of 3 engineers who were the last on the tower was assigned to this dangerous task. Eventually it ended up good, and the device was successfully disarmed. Though disarming a nuclear bomb that didn't go off after firing and potentially could've detonated at any second was more than a tough job. For more info you can check out Nuclear 911, yet another movie from VCE, completely dedicated to Broken Arrows.



JOHN: Test:John; Date:July 19 1957; Operation:Plumbbob; Site:Nevada Test Site (NTS), Area 10; Detonation:Rocket, altitude - 18,500ft; Yield:1.7kt; Type:Fission
John, 19 Jul 1957, Nevada
JOHN

Test: John;
Date: July 19 1957;
Operation: Plumbbob;
Site: Nevada Test Site (NTS), Area 10;
Detonation: Rocket, altitude - 18,500ft;
Yield: 1.7kt;
Type: Fission




STOKES-YELLOW: Test:Stokes; Date:August  7 1957; Operation:Plumbbob; Site:Nevada Test Site (NTS), Area 7b; Detonation:Baloon, altitude - 1500ft; Yield:19kt; Type:Fission
Stokes, 7 Aug 1957, Nevada
STOKES

Test: Stokes;
Date: August 7 1957;
Operation: Plumbbob;
Site: Nevada Test Site (NTS), Area 7b;
Detonation: Baloon, altitude - 1500ft;
Yield: 19kt;
Type: Fission





SHASTA: Test:Shasta; Date:August 18 1957; Operation:Plumbbob; Site:Nevada Test Site (NTS), Area 2b; Detonation:Baloon, altitude - 500ft; Yield:17kt; Type:Fission
Shasta, 18 Aug 1957, Nevada
SHASTA

Test: Shasta;
Date: August 18 1957;
Operation: Plumbbob;
Site: Nevada Test Site (NTS), Area 2b;
Detonation: Baloon, altitude - 500ft;
Yield: 17kt;
Type: Fission





DOPPLER: Test:Doppler; Date:August 23 1957; Operation:Plumbbob; Site:Nevada Test Site (NTS), Area 7; Detonation:Baloon, altitude - 1500ft; Yield:11kt; Type:Fission
Doppler, 23 Aug 1957, Nevada
DOPPLER

Test: Doppler;
Date: August 23 1957;
Operation: Plumbbob;
Site: Nevada Test Site (NTS), Area 7;
Detonation: Balloon, altitude - 1500ft;
Yield: 11kt;
Type: Fission




SMOKY-RED: Test:Smoky; Date:August 31 1957; Operation:Plumbbob; Site:Nevada Test Site (NTS), Area 8; Detonation:Tower, altitude - 700ft; Yield:44kt; Type:Fission/Fusion
Smoky, 31 Aug 1957, Nevada
SMOKY

Test: Smoky;
Date: August 31 1957;
Operation: Plumbbob;
Site: Nevada Test Site (NTS), Area 8;
Detonation: Tower, altitude - 700ft;
Yield: 44kt;
Type: Fission/Fusion





FIZEAU-DAY: Test:Fizeau; Date:September 14 1957; Operation:Plumbbob; Site:Nevada Test Site (NTS), Area 3b; Detonation:Tower, altitude - 500ft; Yield:11kt; Type:Boosted Fission
Fizeau, 14 Sep 1957, Nevada
FIZEAU

Test: Fizeau;
Date: September 14 1957;
Operation: Plumbbob;
Site: Nevada Test Site (NTS), Area 3b;
Detonation: Tower, altitude - 500ft;
Yield: 11kt;
Type: Boosted Fission





CHARLESTON: Test:Charleston; Date:September 28 1957; Operation:Plumbbob; Site:Nevada Test Site (NTS), Area 9; Detonation:Baloon, altitude - 1500ft; Yield:12kt; Type:Fission/Fusion
Charleston, 28 Sep 1957, Nevada
CHARLESTON

Test: Charleston;
Date: September 28 1957;
Operation: Plumbbob;
Site: Nevada Test Site (NTS), Area 9;
Detonation: Baloon, altitude - 1500ft;
Yield: 12kt;
Type: Fission/Fusion





OPERATION HARDTACK I


CACTUS: Test:Cactus; Date:May 5 1958; Operation:Hardtack I; Site:Runit (Yvonne) Island, Enewetak Atoll; Detonation:Surface, 3ft off shot building floor; Yield:18kt; Type:Fission/Fusion
Cactus, 5 May 1958, Runit
CACTUS

Test: Cactus;
Date: May 5 1958;
Operation: Hardtack I;
Site: Runit (Yvonne) Island, Enewetak Atoll;
Detonation: Surface, 3ft off shot building floor;
Yield: 18kt;
Type: Fission/Fusion

During the Cactus shot, Los-Alamos tested MK-43 primary in a thermonuclear system mockup. The test device itself used in Cactus was similar to that of used in the Elder test later in the same Operation. Predicted yield was 13-14 kt and the actual yeald - 18kt. The device primary itself weighed 110.3 lb (50 kg), while overall device weight was 1432 lb. Dimentions - the test device measured 18 inches in width and a 69 in length.

The device was detonated 596 feet southwest of the Lacrosse crater(fired during the operation Redwing). The Cactus shot resulted in a crater that had a diameter of 346 feet, and a maximum depth of 37.2 feet. Interesting thing about the Cactus shot is that many years later the crater was used as a burial pit for the redioactive debreed scraped from all the Enewetak Atooll isalds. Over 110 000 cubic yards of soil was brought here and dumped in the crater. Once done, the crater was covered with concrete dome.


UMBRELLA: Test:Umbrella; Date:June 8 1958; Operation:Hardtack I; Site:Enewetak Lagoon; Detonation:Underwater, depth - 150ft; Yield:8kt; Type:Fission
Umbrella, 8 Jun 1958
UMBRELLA

Test: Umbrella;
Date: June 8 1958;
Operation: Hardtack I;
Site: Enewetak Lagoon;
Detonation: Underwater, depth - 150ft;
Yield: 8kt;
Type: Fission



OAK-OKCLOUD: Test:Oak; Date:June 28 1958; Operation:Hardtack I; Site:Enewetak Lagoon; Detonation:Barge, 8.6ft elevation from the surface; Yield:8.9mgt; Type:Fission/Fusion
Oak, 28 Jun 1958, Enewetak Lagoon
OAK

Test: Oak;
Date: June 28 1958;
Operation: Hardtack I;
Site: Enewetak Lagoon;
Detonation: Barge, 8.6ft elevation from the surface;
Yield: 8.9mgt;
Type: Fission/Fusion

Oak was a test of prototype devuce for TX-46 system designed in Los Alamos. The device was similar to those used in Butternut and Yellowwood, which was a failure. Because of the Yellowwood device failure changes were made to Oak test device, basically secondary stage was bumped up. The result ws remarkable, especially compared to previous failure. Predicted yield of 7.5 Mgt was exceeded by over one megaton, resulting in yield of 8.9 Mgt detonation. By the way, mainly it was the fusion yield that was increased, not the fussion. Instead of 4 mgt fission accounted for 5 mgt yield. Thus, Oak became 6th largest nuclear detonation even conducted by US.



OAK-MCLOUD: Test:Oak; Date:June 28 1958; Operation:Hardtack I; Site:Enewetak Lagoon; Detonation:Barge, 8.6ft elevation from the surface; Yield:8.9mgt; Type:Fission/Fusion
Oak, 28 Jun 1958, Enewetak Lagoon

The test was conducted in the lagoon, although the water was very shallow, only 12ft deep. Oak test device itself was on the small barge. Explosion produced a crater that was 204ft deep and had 5740ft diameter.
The Oak test device was 100.5 inches long cylindrical shaped object, with 37 inches in diameter and weighed 6113 lb. This design eventually became 9 Mt W/Mk-53 warhead used on the Titan II missile and in the Mk-53 strategic bomb. Actually it became one of the longest lastign designs in US nuclear armament, being in service till 1997.



OPERATION HARDTACK II


SOCORRO: Test:Socorro; Date:October 22 1958; Operation:Hardtack II; Site:Nevada Test Site (NTS), Area 7b; Detonation:Baloon, altitude - 1450ft; Yield:18kt; Type:Fission
Socorro, 22 Oct 1958, Nevada
SOCORRO

Test: Socorro;
Date: October 22 1958;
Operation: Hardtack II;
Site: Nevada Test Site (NTS), Area 7b;
Detonation: Baloon, altitude - 1450ft;
Yield: 18kt;
Type: Fission





DE BACA: Test:De Baca; Date:October 26 1958; Operation:Hardtack II; Site:Nevada Test Site (NTS), Area 7b; Detonation:Baloon, altitude - 1500ft; Yield:2.2kt; Type:Fission
De Baca, 26 Oct 1958, NV
DE BACCA

Test: De Baca;
Date: October 26 1958;
Operation: Hardtack II;
Site: Nevada Test Site (NTS), Area 7b;
Detonation: Baloon, altitude - 1500ft;
Yield: 2.2kt;
Type: Fission




RUSSIA




TZAR BOMBA-VIEW: Name:Tzar Bomba; Date:October 30, 1961; Site:Novaya Zemlya; Detonation:Airburst; Yield 50Mgt; Type:Fission/Fusion
Tzar Bomba, 30 Oct 1961
TZAR BOMBA

Name: Tzar Bomba;
Date: October 30, 1961;
Site: Novaya Zemlya;
Detonation: Airburst;
Yield 50Mgt;
Type: Fission/Fusion

On October 30, 1961, Tu-95 Bear bomber guided by pilot A. E. Durnovtsev(he was made a Hero of the Soviet Union) flew towards Novaya the Zemlya Island in the Arctic Sea. That day will forever remain in nuclear history as a day when the most powerful thermonuclear has been detonated. Tzar Bomba (King Of The Bombs) yielded 50Mgt. Originally US estimated its yield as 58 Mgt, however resently declassified Russian materials show 50Mgt figure. Apparenly US overestimated bomb power.

Probably only first nuclear and thermonuclear bombs caused as much reaction as Tzar Bomba did. And there were reasons for that. Several events prior to bomb detonation:

** Jan. 1960 - Khrushchev's speech at the United Nations for support of "wars of national liberation". Everyone understands what does it mean - Communist intervension into third world countries.
** Jan. 1961 - John Fitzgerald Kennedy in his inauguration speech replied: "...oppose any foe to assure the survival and success of liberty".
** June 1961 - General Secretary Krushchev assures US President Kennedy that the Soviet Union wouldn't conduct any nuclear devices if the United States would maintain the same moratorium. As the world will see soon, this was a shameless lie.
** July 10, 1961 - Nikita Khruschev meets Andrey Sakharov, the senior weapon designer by the time, and orders the development of a 100 megaton bomb. The device had to be ready by September of the same year, so that the detonation of such power would create maximum political effect.
** Aug 1961 - Soviets build the infamous Berlin Wall, dividing Berlin into two separate cities: East Berlin (communist) and West Berlin (democratic).
** Sept. 1961 - President Kennedy's letter in the LIFE magazine, advising Americans to build fallout shelters. For an entire year the fallout hysteria is raging.


TZAR BOMBA-FLASH: Name:Tzar Bomba; Date:October 30, 1961; Site:Novaya Zemlya; Detonation:Airburst; Yield 50Mgt; Type:Fission/Fusion
Tzar Bomba, 30 Oct 1961
As you can see Sakharov didn't have much time for development. Nevertheless, Tzar is developed in a remarkably short time, just fourteen weeks after the initiation of its design. The fully operational bomb weights 27 metric tons. Which is more than any bomber can carry at that time. Hence, the decision is made to produce Tzar's scaled down version. That was done by replacing the uranium fusion tamper (which increases the yield significantly) with one made of lead. That reduces the weight and eliminates fast fission by the fusion neutrons, hence reducing the power of the original version. A 50 megaton bomb was now ready to be detonated.


TZAR BOMBA-PARA: Name:Tzar Bomba; Date:October 30, 1961; Site:Novaya Zemlya; Detonation:Airburst; Yield 50Mgt; Type:Fission/Fusion
Tzar Bomba, 30 Oct 1961
Tzar test was a parachute retarded Airburst at 4000 meter altitude. Delivery method, Tu-95 Bear strategic bomber. The explosion of the immense power significantly increased overall fission fallout in the world. It was clear that from the military standpoint, the bomb of that size was ineffective as a "City Killer", nevertheless USSR did need the bomb as an intimidating factor in the political battle with US. It was meant to create the illusion that USSR wasn't far behind from US with its nuclear armament, if not exceeding. In fact USSR had less nuclear weapons at that time. Tzar's detonation caused very negative response from the free world, but less likely that USSR cared about that, it was an act of intimidation, nothing else. Interesting fact, Tzar's the huge parachute made of nylon, disrupted Soviet nylon industry for a long time. Ostensibly, Tzar didn't end the Cold War, nor helped to scale it down in any way. It proved that the delivery of nuclear weapons by strategic bombers, and aircraft in general was not an efficient way during wartime. It emphasize the necessity of the reliable, fast, cost effective, immediate response to nuclear attack cost effective to maintain. The result was the creation of new nuclear weapons of war. The ICBM - intercontinental ballistic missile.





OPERATION STORAX


SEDAN: Test:Sedan; Date:July 6 1962; Operation:Storax; Site:Nevada Test Site (NTS), Area 10; Detonation:Subsurface, depth - 635 feet; Yield:104kt; Type:Fission
Sedan, 6 Jul 1962, Nevada
SEDAN

Test: Sedan;
Date: July 6 1962;
Operation: Storax;
Site: Nevada Test Site (NTS), Area 10;
Detonation: Subsurface, depth - 635 feet;
Yield: 104kt;
Type: Fission





OPERATION DOMINIC

TRUCKEE-PURPLE: Test:Truckee; Date:June 9 1962; Operation:Dominic; Site:10 Mi. S of Christmas Island; Detonation:B-52 Airdrop, altitude - 6,970ft; Yield:210kt; Type:Fission
Truckee, 9 Jun 1962

TRUCKEE

Test: Truckee;
Date: June 9 1962;
Operation: Dominic;
Site: 10 Mi. S of Christmas Island;
Detonation: B-52 Airdrop, altitude - 6,970ft;
Yield: 210kt;
Type: Fission

Truckee test was a successfull test of x58 missile warhead for Polaris A2 missle. Basically this was verification of the older warhead in a new case for the new missile. Performance was considered satisfactory and the warhead went into production. Polaris A2 missile carried 2 of those warheads.



SWORDFISH: Test:Swordfish; Date:May 11 1962; Operation:Dominic; Site:400 nMi. W of San Digeo; Detonation:Rosket Launched Depth Bomb, underwater, at 650ft; Yield:20Kt; Type:Fission
Swordfish, 11 May 1962

SWORDFISH

Test: Swordfish;
Date: May 11 1962;
Operation: Dominic;
Site: 400 nMi. W of San Deago;
Detonation: Rocket Launched Depth Bomb, underwater, at 650ft;
Yield: 20Kt;
Type: Fission

Swordfish became US last underwater test. Overall, during the years of testing US conducted 5 underwater nuclear tests, including Swordfish. Swordfish test pursued several objectives, including: Wepon effect on ships, submarines sonars, etc. For that several US navy vessels including 4 destroyers and a submarine on the surface wre positioned on various distances from ground(probably surface) zero, 2000 yd to 4500 yd; Evaluation of the safety for the vessels launching nuclear weapons; Proofing test of firing ASROC missile.

The missile was launched from the destroyer USS Agerholm (DD-826). Target surface zero) was approx. 4300 yd. away. Bombing was relatively precise, as the rocket missed its target by 20 yd. and exploded at a depth of 650ft 40 second after entering the water. As usual underwater nuclear detonations are very spactacular.

Swordfish was no exception. The resulting spray dome had 3000ft diameter and rose to 2100 ft in 16 seconds. Which means millions of tonns water in the air. Other than that the result was significant radiological contamination of the ocean.


YESO-BLAGOON: Test:Yeso; Date:June 10 1962; Operation:Dominic; Site:20 Mi. S of Christmas Island; Detonation:B-52 Airdrop, altitude - 8,325ft; Yield:3.0mgt; Type:Fission/Fusion
Yeso, 10 Jun 1962, Christmas Isle

YESO

Test: Yeso;
Date: June 10 1962;
Operation: Dominic;
Site: 20 Mi. S of Christmas Island;
Detonation: B-52 Airdrop, altitude - 8,325ft;
Yield: 3.0mgt;
Type: Fission/Fusion



BIGHORN: Test:Bighorn; Date:June 27 1962; Operation:Dominic; Site:30 Mi. S of Christmas Island; Detonation:B-52 Airdrop, altitude - 11,810ft; Yield:7.650mgt; Type:Fission/Fusion
Bighorn, 27 Jun 1962, Christmas Isle

BIGHORN

Test: Bighorn;
Date: June 27 1962;
Operation: Dominic;
Site: 30 Mi. S of Christmas Island;
Detonation: B-52 Airdrop, altitude - 11,810ft;
Yield: 7.650mgt;
Type: Fission/Fusion



BLUESTONE: Test: Bluestone; Date: June 30 1962; Operation: Dominic; Site: 17 Mi. S of Christmas Island; Detonation: B-52 Airdrop, altitude - 4,980ft; Yield: 1.270mgt; Type: Fission/Fusion
Bluestone, 30 Jun 1962, Christmas Isle

BLUESTONE

Test: Bluestone;
Date: June 30 1962;
Operation: Dominic;
Site: 17 Mi. S of Christmas Island;
Detonation: B-52 Airdrop, altitude - 4,980ft;
Yield: 1.270mgt;
Type: Fission/Fusion




BLUEGILL: Test:Bluegill; Date:October 26 1962; Operation:Dominic; Site:19 Mi. SSW of Johnston Island; Detonation:Thor missile airburst, altitude - 160,000ft; Yield:1mgt; Type:Fission/Fusion
Bluegill, 26 Oct 1962, Johnston Isle

BLUEGILL

Test: Bluegill;
Date: October 26 1962;
Operation: Dominic;
Site: 19 Mi. SSW of Johnston Island;
Detonation: Thor missile airburst, altitude - 160,000ft;
Yield: 1mgt;
Type: Fission/Fusion




CHINA



6: Test:Test No. 6; Date:June 17 1967; Site:Lop Nur Test Ground; Detonation:Airdrop, altitude - 9549ft(2960m); Yield:3.3mgt; Type:Fission
6, 17 Jun 1967, Lop Nur CN

6

Test: Test No. 6;
Date: June 17 1967;
Site: Lop Nur Test Ground; Lop Nur Nuclear Weapon Test Base, in Malan, Xinjiang
Detonation: Airdrop, altitude - 9549ft(2960m);
Yield: 3.3mgt;
Type:Fission

With successful testing of this three-stage thermonuclear device, China became the fourth country to have successfully developed a thermonuclear weapon after the United States, Soviet Union and the United Kingdom.

596-SCLOUD: Test:596; Date:October 16 1964; Site:Lop Nur Test Ground; Detonation:Tower Shot, altitude - 329ft(102m); Yield:22kt; Type:Fission
596, 16 Oct 1964, Lop Nur
'6' was dropped from a Hong-6 -- Chinese manufactured Tu-16 -- and was parachute-retarded for an airburst at 2960 meters. The bomb was a three-stage device with a boosted U-235 primary and U-238 pusher. The yield was 3.3 megatons.

It was a fully functional, full-scale, three-stage hydrogen bomb, tested 32 months after China had made its first fission device. China thus produced the shortest fission-to-fusion development known in history. Other fission-to-fusion timespans: The time between the U.S.'s first atomic test and its first hydrogen bomb test was 86 months, for the USSR it was 75 months, for the UK 66 months and later for France, 105 months.

China had received extensive technical help from the Soviet Union to jump-start their nuclear program, but by 1960, the rift between the Soviet Union and China had become so great that the Soviet Union ceased all assistance to China. Thus, the Number 6 test was indeed an independent endeavor, after the induced military and economic sanctions enacted by the superpowers at the time, the United States and the Soviet Union.

The goal of China was to produce a thermonuclear device of at least a megaton in yield that could be dropped by an aircraft or carried by a ballistic missile. Several explosions to test thermonuclear weapon designs, characteristics and yield boosting preceded the thermonuclear test.


596-OKCLOUD: Test:596; Date:October 16 1964; Site:Lop Nur Test Ground; Detonation:Tower Shot, altitude - 329ft(102m); Yield:22kt; Type:Fission
596, 16 Oct 1964
596

Test: 596;
Date: October 16 1964;
Site: Lop Nur Test Ground;
Detonation: Tower Shot, altitude - 329ft(102m);
Yield: 22kt;
Type: uranium-235 Fission

With the test, China became the fifth nuclear power.

In response, the Taiwanese leadership, including President Chiang Kai-shek, called for a military response against Chinese nuclear facilities and the formation of an Asian anti-communist defense organisation.

Project 596 was named after the month of June 1959 in which it was initiated, immediately after Nikita Khrushchev decided to stop helping the Chinese with their nuclear program on 20 June 1959.



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