Prospects for the white tribe:
The future of the Afrikaner people in South Africa
The future of the Afrikaner people in South Africa
by Dan Roodt
Talk presented to the American Renaissance conference in the Hyatt Dulles Hotel, near Washington on 25 February 2006
This cover from Time in 1977 first designated the Afrikaner people as a “white tribe”
I was given the opportunity to change the title of this topic but I have preferred not to, even though I do not think that South African whites in general or the Afrikaner people in particular are a tribe. Rather, as I have suggested in my essay published in American Renaissance in May/June 2004, which was reprinted in my book The Scourge of the ANC, Afrikaners are a "cultural nation of the European type": "During the late 19th and early 20th centuries, they went through a great Romantic movement, a flowering of literature, translations, music and historical reflection that bound them into (such a nation)."
However, upon accepting the challenge of this topic, I was presented with one further dilemma: what to wear. These days in South Africa, the motley collection of people occupying the beautiful Cape Dutch building in Cape Town that used to be our Parliament often arrive in tribal dress for the annual opening, brandishing clubs and spears. We call these knobkieries and assegais. In coming to talk to you about our “tribe”, I would therefore also have to appear in tribal dress. What does Afrikaner tribal dress look like? After thinking about it long and hard, I have decided that I should at least wear a three-piece suit. As you can see, I have also consulted my local witch-doctor who has furnished me with charms called cuff-links to protect me from the bad spirits at this conference.
The Union Building in Pretoria, seat of government, now occupied by the Xhosa tribe
Nowadays on the internet one may look on a site such as Google Earth at satellite images of various monuments in the world: the Eiffel Tower, London Bridge, Manhattan Island, as well as our seat of government, the Union Building in Pretoria. Not so long ago I spent a whole day in Pretoria with a magazine photographer who was taking pictures of me, one of those faintly embarassing moments when I as a grey-haired middle-aged male have to pose like a nubile female model of twenty. The photographer concerned was of a certain type: equally middle-aged but dressed like a teenager and professing what she thought were artistic views on politics, a kind of predictable liberalism in the American sense. She welcomed black rule in South Africa, considered crime and violence a passing blip on the upward sloping chart of optimism regarding the formation of one multiracial, multicultural nation in South Africa where, to quote Samora Machel, the former communist president of neighbouring Moçambique, "for the nation to live, the tribe must die".
In South Africa, there can be no doubt as to which tribe must die. As far as I know, the term "white tribe" was first used by Time magazine to refer to my people in 1977, after which David Dimbleby of the BBC made a four-part series in 1979 entitled "The White Tribe of Africa". The notion must have met with universal acclaim, for in the same year Dimbleby's film received the Supreme Documentary Award of the Royal Television Society. Since the late seventies the expression has become something of a commonplace, and of course it is intended as a pejorative term, to ridicule us; “tribes” are after all backward peoples, lacking in civilization.
The author in front of the Union Building, from the magazine Insig
However, as I continued to gaze at the exposed abdomen of my hipster-wearing, politically correct photographer, I finally could not help passing a few ironic comments on her stereotypical views. As we stood at the Union Buildings I mused aloud, "I wonder what the people who built these buildings would have thought today if they knew that a few tribal chiefs almost one thousand miles from here, huddling around their campfire outside their huts would come to Pretoria in eighty years' time and forever subjugate their descendants to rule by their tribe, the Xhosa."
Our Xhosa conquerors: Winnie and Rohlihlala Mandela, with Joe Slovo, a gentleman of Lithuanian extraction
Model of a Xhosa hut: “The Xhosa Hut is one of the simpler structures and was developed in sparsely wooded areas, and is therefore constructed principally of mud brick. This is then plastered with mud, the whole being thatched with a conical roof. Both the building and the decoration was traditionally the responsibility of women.”
As I shall argue, South Africa is not just a story of one tribe conquering another, as the BBC or Time would have it. The greatest Xhosa chief in history, Rohlihlala Mandela, sometimes referred to as Nelson, did not just outwit FW de Klerk, the last white president of South Africa to subjugate South African whites to the most draconian regime of race preference the world has ever seen, taking the form of institutionalised anti-white racism and even "racial revenge" as a left-wing French journalist (Stephen Smith) has quite rightly called the continuing calamity of farm murders. The BBC's cliché, "the white tribe", has been followed by other slogans regularly chanted in South Africa, such as "kill a Boer, kill a farmer" or the charming one recently coined by the so-called Pan-African Students Movement of Azania (PASMA): "kill all whites, English and Afrikaans", chanted on 19 February 2005.
A similar anti-white mood to that of the PASMA students was expressed on 27 April 2004 when a group of us, just over a 100 with women and children in our ranks, had attended a meeting in the Ou Raadzaal, Church Square, Pretoria. Upon coming out we were confronted with the two individuals on the left who immediately and without provocation from us adopted a hostile attitude. Within seconds a large, aggressive crowd had assembled. The one pointing at his watch was telling us: “Your time is up, we are going to slit your throats.” Fortunately we were saved by three or four white policemen, armed with shotguns. A journalist from the pro-ANC newspaper, Beeld, named Jan-Jan Joubert wrote a snide report the next day, suggesting that we were “cowards” in not taking on a mob of 1500 aggressive young blacks and not risking injury to the women and children coming out of the hall.
However, and notwithstanding the vicious social violence raging in our country every day where innocent people are attacked in supermarkets, shopping centres, in their cars, in their homes and on the street, on farms and on university campuses, it may not even be necessary to "kill all whites, English and Afrikaans" as the enquiring young minds of PASMA have suggested in their innocent celebration of African solidarity. For the system of institutionalised anti-white racism designed by South Africa's ANC, with some help from Western governments, think tanks and aid agencies, is so beautiful and so effective that whites will voluntarily disappear by committing demographic suicide.
The demographic trend since 1868 when whites and blacks were more or less at parity in a vast, underpopulated country twice the size of France.
This point was brought home to me at the end of last year by an article in the Afrikaans financial weekly, Finweek (30 November 2005). Entitled "Wittes ál meer uitgedun. Die produktiefste segment van die bevolkingsgroep word al hoe kleiner" (Whites thinned out even more. The most productive segment of this population group is getting increasingly smaller), it summarises research showing the following: because of the ANC's race preference programme, young whites, unable to find jobs, are leaving the country in droves. Up to 800 000 of them have gone overseas since 1991. However, these same young people between the ages of 20 and 40 are of course the ones who will be fathers and mothers to the next generation of white South Africans. With their children born outside the country, the demographic effect on the remaining white population is simply devastating.
French author Jean Raspail has referred to the "demographic crash of the West". If the West is experiencing a demographic crash, we are facing a Great Crash of 1929 induced by the ANC's race laws. As the article in Finweek argues, the current generation of white men between the ages of 40 and 60 represent most of South Africa's intellectual capital. The average age of a South African civil engineer is 60. As only 2% of South African chartered accountants are black (a term which includes Indians and mixed-race Coloureds), it is feared that the steady stream of departing young accountants will cause a collapse of the financial system in the not too distant future.
Apart from negative demographics as a result of a low birth-rate and racially induced emigration, Afrikaners are up against the following:
- Language discrimination with the object of destroying the Afrikaans language, the main source of cohesion among Afrikaners who represent 60% of the white population.
- An effective tax rate of over 60% whereby wealth and income are transferred from us to the Afro-Saxon elite mainly composed of the ruling Xhosas. As we are dependent on private security services, health care and schooling funded from after-tax money, the ones who still work have become a "working poor" by Western standards and the unemployed or under-employed ones have formed a new class of "poor whites", educated and economically employable but unemployable in terms of ANC race laws.
- So-called "land reform" whereby 30% of the country's land will be turned over to blacks. As only 12% of South Africa is really suitable for farming, this could mean that most, if not all, farmland will either be bought up with public funds or expropriated and given to blacks in a repeat of what happened in Zimbabwe, with the difference that the South African economy is not nearly as dependent on agriculture as that of Zimbabwe.
- New gun laws intended to disarm whites so that they will not be able to defend themselves against future confiscation of assets during "land reform", and to stave off a future revolt of desperate whites unable to work or trade anymore as a result of the race laws.
Blacks used to complain about apartheid, but apart from the Group Areas Act restricting them to certain areas, there were no real restrictions placed on black mobility or economic activity. On the contrary, black economic activity was encouraged and subsidised in the quasi-independent homelands in the forlorn hope that blacks would migrate away from white areas if given their own economic kickstart. In addition, black education and healthcare were almost entirely funded by the white taxpayer so that apartheid could be seen as a kind of internal foreign aid system, as opposed to the external aid provided by the developed countries to most sub-Saharan African states.
In contradistinction, the ANC's system of "transformation" represents blatant anti-white racism, with a plethora of laws restricting white education, ability to trade, access to capital, ownership of land and other assets. In fact, apart from anti-Jewish measures during the 1930s in Nazi Germany, I am unaware of a similar system of systemic ethnic and linguistic discrimination in modern times. I have made a brief and non-exhaustive list of race laws currently in force in South Africa. Please note the Orwellian euphemisms used to disguise the ANC's arsenal of anti-white legislation:
- Public Service Act Proclamation 103 of 1994
- Labour relations Act no 66 of 1995
- South African Police Service Act no 68 of 1995
- Employment of Educators Act no 76 of 1998
- Employment Equity Act no 55 of 1998
- Higher Education Act 101 of 1997
- National Sport and Recreation Act no 110 of 1998
- National Empowerment Fund Act no 105 of 1998
- Marine Living Resources Act no 18 of 1998
- Broad-Based black economic empowerment Act no 53 of 2003
- Pretroleum products Ammendment act no 58 of 2003
- National Gambling Act no 7 of 2004
The Employment Equity Act probably represents the cornerstone of these race laws. It sets up a racial classification system in which whites are on the bottom rung, Indians and Coloureds in the middle and black Africans on top. In practice it prohibits banks and other large companies from employing young whites and aims to make all private corporations "demographically representative", i.e. whites may not occupy more than 9% of posts. As the white demographic crash continues, white participation in the formal economy will eventually sink to zero.
Please note that apart from these explicitly racial laws discriminating against whites, there exists also a myriad of regulations, so-called economic "charters" and unofficial practices that curtail white economic activity, employment and access to capital. Even small and family businesses are now being targeted. Such businesses will not be able to sell their goods and services to any large corporation, let alone the government, and will be denied access to bank credit if they do not have black partners who must own at least half of their firms.
The racial scorecard
There exists a racial scorecard that is widely applied in private firms and government departments to value employees:
- Black female 6 points
- Black male 5 points
- Coloured or Indian female 4 points
- Coloured or Indian male 3 points
- Handicapped white female 2 points
- White female 1 point
- White male 0 points
Alain Finkelkraut: “... the lofty idea of `the war on racism' was gradually turning into a hideously false ideology. And this anti-racism will be for the 21st century what communism was for the 20th century. A source of violence.”
The French philosopher and commentator Alain Finkielkraut was absolutely right when he said last year that "... the lofty idea of `the war on racism' was gradually turning into a hideously false ideology. And this anti-racism will be for the 21st century what communism was for the 20th century. A source of violence."
Probably the most violent country in the world
South Africa under ANC rule has attained the dubious distinction of being the most violent country in the world. A recent advertisement on state television stated that 2000 women were raped in South Africa every day. We have more than 50 000 annual homicides. On the other hand, violence may be a symptom of totalitarian societies but it is not the only symptom. The comparison with communism is even more apposite in other ways.
The horribly tortured and mutilated corpses of Afrikaner farmers currently being killed in what some international commentators have designated a “genocide”.
Reported murders per 100 000:
- Honduras (154.02)
- South Africa (121.91)
- Swaziland (93.32)
- Colombia (69.98)
- Lesotho (50.41)
- Rwanda (45.08)
- Jamaica (37.21)
- El Salvador (36.88)
- Venezuela (33.20)
- Bolivia (31.98)
Transformation: could the South African revolution be exported?
As I stand here before you, my greatest fear is not that my people or my language will become extinct, that the Western civilisation that we have created over 350 years on the southern tip of Africa will be lost, however real and pressing those fears might be. My biggest fear is that the South African revolution of 1994 will be exported elsewhere, just like the Russian revolution of 1917 was extended to other parts of the globe, to China, Cuba, parts of Asia, Africa and Latin America. Many intellectuals supported communism in the twentieth century. Its influence extended to universities, the media, culture and the very way we look at ourselves. The egalitarian extremism of communism is not dead; it has simply metamorphosed into a new life-cycle, from being class-based to race-based. In post-1994 South Africa we have the most radical expression of this new biological communism going by the ominous name of "transformation". There can be no doubt that the ultimate aim of South Africa's current rulers is to eradicate all forms of what they term "whiteness" from our country, to change all names of towns and cities that we have founded, to rewrite and to falsify history so that it would seem that we never existed.
The South African revolution uses the same methods as communism to effect a far-reaching change permeating every level of society, including government at the national, provincial and municipal level, corporations, media, the legal system, the family, language and culture, even science. To give you an inkling of how pervasive the ideological control of transformation extends even beyond government: every sizeable private company has a "transformation department" that vets all appointments, even orders from outside suppliers to make sure that whites are systematically disadvantaged and ultimately reduced to being beggars at the gates. As a matter of course, blacks are paid higher salaries and may charge higher prices for their goods.
South Africa used to have one of the most independent, efficient and professional legal systems in the world, based on Roman Dutch law and English common law. Judges were sacrosanct and could only be removed from office by a two-thirds majority in parliament. Recently the Chief Justice of the Cape Division, John Hlope, referred to an Afrikaner advocate as, and pardon the verbatim quote, "a piece of white shit that should go back to Holland". In order to "transform" the legal system and get rid of white judges, a political court has been appointed above all others known as the Constitional Court. Apart from functioning as an ultimate court of appeal able to overturn most judicial decisions, it also functions as a kind of communist night school where seminars on history and human rights are held so as to give official ideology the authority of judicial blessing.
The totalitarian tendency towards brainwashing the entire population extends to schools, universities and especially private corporations. Employees are subjected to so-called "diversity training" where they are taught to respect African culture and to despise Western culture as being racist, elitist and colonialist. One of the most powerful Coloured intellectuals in the country (prof. Jakes Gerwel) stated that "the European renaissance led to apartheid" with the implication that all Western culture since 1492 should be eradicated just like apartheid was eradicated.
Living in South Africa today, it is easy to become a pessimist. To most concerned outsiders, our situation must look hopeless: we are outnumbered, our leaders have betrayed us, the formerly Nationalist Afrikaans press has become more liberal than the New York Times or the London Guardian and the whole world seems to support black South Africa in its relentless Cold War against whites.
However, in our very hopelessness might lie our salvation. For perhaps the first time since the Renaissance, a white, Western nation of several million people has become a real underdog, being dominated by - of all people - black Africans. Surely this David and Goliath struggle, one on which our very existence depends, will excite the imagination of the world?
Four pillars of Western civilization: European, North American, Australian, Southern African
As I have said elsewhere, there are four European or white civilisations that came about during our time of scientific, intellectual and geographic discovery from the fifteenth to the twentieth centuries: the European, the North American, the Australian and the African with its centre in Southern Africa, especially the area around Johannesburg and Pretoria where two million whites still live, speaking English and Afrikaans. In the uncompromising, cruel and unjust campaign to uproot us from our fatherland, exemplified by Robert Mugabe's anti-white land grab programme and the ANC's system of racial domination, we see the "beginning of the end" for Western man itself. The nightmare of all Europeans worldwide must be that the South African revolution should be extended internationally where the 800 million or so whites would be required to fund a welfare state for Africa, Latin America and South Asia. President Thabo Mbeki of South Africa has already hinted during the United Nations World Conference Against Racism in 2001 that the success of the South African experiment should lead to the eradication of what he calls "global apartheid". One imagines that under "global post-apartheid" billions of poor Africans, Latin Americans and Asians could directly control the savings and industrial capacity of the West.
Decline of the West
Is South Africa but the overture of a grand opera that is still to follow, leading to the dispossession of whites in Australia, North America and Europe?
Nietzsche and Spengler foresaw the “Untergang des Abendlandes”
Nietzsche, Spengler and others foresaw a time when the will of "the creative minority", to use Arnold Toynbee's term, would dissipate, a time when the herd and its values would be victorious. Toynbee called it a “failure of nerve”. Spengler spoke about the decline of the West, Der Untergang des Abendlandes, as a phenomenon not so much “limited in time and space”, but as a “philosophical problem that, when comprehended in all its gravity, includes within itself every great question of Being.” (Spengler 2000: 3)
Interestingly, Spengler claims not to study history as a series of causes and effects in the traditional sense. According to him, “what concerns us is not what the historical facts which appear at this or that time are, per se, but what they signify, what they point to, by appearing.” The fact that we suffered a diplomatic defeat against the African nationalists of the ANC in 1994 led to a revolution in South Africa but that did not immediately have an impact on Europe or North America.
However, it might be - and I am increasingly becoming convinced of this – that South Africa is but the overture of a grand opera that is still to follow, leading to the dispossession of whites in Australia, North America and the very origin of our type and civilization, Europe itself.
That is why the plight of Afrikaners and white South Africans concerns not just us, but you as well. Many of our people think that they can buy time or run away from the problem by emigrating to Australia, North America or Western Europe. Ultimately, however, there is no escape as events over the last few months and years have made clear, portending a worldwide clash of civilizations in which the European, the white, will be targeted and made to submit to the demographic power of Africa, Latin America, India and southern Asia. The French riots or the furore over the Danish cartoons represent outbreaks of anti-white sentiment that will increase in scope and ferocity over the coming years.
In my book The Scourge of the ANC, I have called the current South African system a “perversion of the Western democratic idea”. Increasingly, the UN and the third-world lobby - often led by South Africa’s black rulers - would like to see an extension of the South African system where numbers alone would constitute the key to all political power. Already in my country we live, not in a “democracy”, but in a “demography”.
Apart from the institution of a racial census in 1994 to determine who should hold power, the South African revolution was founded on a double betrayal: the betrayal of South African whites by their Western kin who actually wanted to see them subjugated by Africans, as well as the betrayal of the Afrikaners by their own leaders who blindly accepted the worst possible outcome which would completely dispossess whites and make them effectively foreigners in the land of their birth. Betrayal by one’s own is worse than defeat by one’s enemy. Cicero may already have said this, but it bears repeating.
"A nation can survive its fools and even the ambitious. But it cannot survive treason from within. An enemy at the gates is less formidable, for he is known and he carries his banners openly against the city. But the traitor moves among those within the gates freely, his sly whispers rustling through all the alleys, heard in the very halls of government itself. For the traitor appears no traitor; he speaks in the accents familiar to his victims, and he wears their face and their garments and he appeals to the baseness that lies deep in the hearts of all men."
- Cicero, Speech to the Roman Senate
An Afrikaner liberation programme
Like most Westerners, we tend to analyse and theorize a lot. We do not just act on blind intuition, grab a knife and rush out to kill the nearest black in a mob while chanting, "Kill all blacks, kill all kaffirs", like blacks are wont to do to whites. But theory can also prevent action. That is why we must have a highly practical approach to our liberation struggle. Here are my proposals for an Afrikaner liberation struggle:
- Bring the majority of Afrikaner cultural organisations together in an Afrikaner Council which would demand self-determination from black South Africa under the slogan "five percent of the land for five percent of the people". (In this respect we are already half-way there as dozens of Afrikaner organisations have expressed a need for solidarity over the past few months and informal talks toward unity have been going on.)
- Start a mainstream Afrikaans-language daily newspaper to counter government and corporate propaganda maintaining that we should accept subservience, daily violence and lawlessness, as well as racial domination and dispossession. According to my calculations, such a newspaper could have a circulation of 100 000 within one year, would cost about R50 million or $8 million to set up and would eventually show an annual after-tax profit of a similar amount ($8 million). Alternately, an internet daily could be set up for much less and also exert much influence.
- Publicise the plight of white South Africans worldwide, with an emphasis on the violence, injustice and anti-racist racism that we are suffering from. Let post-apartheid South Africa become a rallying point for whites in Europe (including Eastern Europe), North America and Australia/New Zealand, just like the anti-apartheid movement and its vicious exaggerations served to bolster the Third World and international anti-white movement. Up to a million of our people already live exemplary lives in exile all over the Western world, obeying the law and making productive contributions to their respective societies. Most of them are not there by choice, but have been driven from their country by violence and race laws. Once our movement takes shape, they will influence public opinion in their countries of residence.
- Overturn the academic and media propaganda portraying whites as evil, money-grabbing colonialists whose only contribution to the world was slavery, racism and exploitation of innocent natives. The recent and controversial law in France requiring schoolteachers to stress the positive side of French colonialism is a step in the right direction. However, just think of the effect on the anti-white movement if we could overturn the international propaganda victory around apartheid! Many people, including most Afrikaner intellectuals, think this is impossible, but in my opinion the other side has overplayed its hand in portraying us as rabid Nazis having committed a so-called "crime against humanity" on South African blacks. George Orwell's dictum, that "In a time of universal deceit - telling the truth is a revolutionary act" should inspire us all.
- We must set ourselves clear targets against which to measure our progress. A suggested date for our secession from black South Africa would be 31 May 2011, just over five years from now. Imagine the repercussions of our decolonisation from African rule where our right to govern ourselves as a predominantly white nation will be internationally recognised, as opposed to the international imposition of black rule we experienced in 1994.
Many whites, especially those on the right of the political spectrum, easily lapse into pessimism over the future, faced with our inexorable demographic decline, moral dissipation and empty consumerism. Weak political leadership seems to have become the hallmark of Western governments everywhere. However, an Afrikaner liberation struggle in South Africa could reinspire demoralised white populations everywhere.
In that sense, and without lapsing into the Calvinistic excess of traditional Afrikaner Nationalism which portrayed us a chosen people with a special calling in Africa, I firmly believe that we have a role to play in the survival of our race, not only in the biological sense of the word but also in a wider cultural sense.
Protest against the Pretoria name change a few years ago, followed by an even bigger demonstration last year. An amazing sight to see white, middle-class Afrikaners out on the streets! Singer Steve Hofmeyr is visible in the middle, sideways to the camera.
First of all, we are used to being outnumbered and of having the odds against us. There is probably not a single historical battle, be it against the British, the Zulus or anyone else, which we fought and won where we did not find ourselves in the minority. As the smallest of the four global pillars of European civilization, we have created an amazingly rich and developed culture, including a unique Euro-African language and a very strong, ubashedly white identity. After 350 years in Africa, often surrounded by coloured peoples, we have not intermarried or miscegenated to any significant extent, unlike the Portuguese and the Spanish who were soon genetically submerged by native populations in their colonies.
The Creole model
Images from the SA media: the ideal of the “rainbow nation”
In black-ruled South Africa, both our language and our identity find themselves under systematic attack. Until recently the world, specifically the Western world, conspired to destroy us and to make us strangers in the land of our birth, with the Creole model of the "rainbow nation" held up to us as the ideal. It is fine to be black or Arab in Europe, but being white in Africa is simply unacceptable. That is also why no Western government has expressed anything more than token diplomatic displeasure in seeing all white assets confiscated in Zimbabwe, with similar policies being implemented for our own farmers, albeit with much more violence than in Zimbabwe.
Beethoven in the bush
However, I daresay that today the West cannot afford to see us disappear. In any future war against America or Europe, our platinum, chromium and other strategic minerals will be used against the West. But even apart from the material advantages for our white brethren in having our independence and freedom restored, the Afrikaner people constitutes a unique reservoir of talent and survival skills, an exemplar of what everyone and everywhere will soon call the "minority white race". Hearing Beethoven in the bush might be even more important than hearing him in Berlin.
Afrikaner violinist Zanta Hofmeyr, scene from Kruger National Park
Can you afford not to support us?
As such, can you risk not to support us in our legitimate struggle to throw off the shackles of black racist domination, exploitation and injustice?
The “Prinsevlag” (Prince Flag), one of the oldest European flags dating from 1571 under which we are waging our liberation struggle, regularly painted on walls, statues and other symbols of the hated Xhosa regime.
After this talk I was asked why Afrikaners and other whites do not simply leave South Africa to escape their inevitable displacement by the black majority who now enjoys a monopoly on power. My answer was fourfold:
- We have invested too much effort in South Africa and are too rooted in our country to leave like the Belgians, Portuguese, French or British did from elsewhere in Africa.
- We have no “home country” to return to and most Western governments despise us sufficiently not to want us as immigrants. They would prefer immigrants from China, Africa, India or Latin America to whites from South Africa.
- We would cease to exist as a nation and our language and culture would become extinct. Leaving would therefore entail both national and cultural suicide.
- We do not trust the Western leaders who, given a chance, would do the same to their own people as what De Klerk did to us: betray them and have them subjugated. We are simply “ahead of the curve” and soon other whites might find themselves in a similar situation to ours, being dominated and dispossessed of their very land, language and identity. So let us rather wage the struggle here than run away, only to be confronted by the same problem ten or twenty years hence.